1. Clark defined probability as the fraction of favorable cases over total number of cases.
In good Clarkian fashion it is of primary importance to first define the term at hand. As for “probability,” Clark twice provided a definition in his debate with David Hoover. In the first occasion he said “Probability is the fraction of the favorable cases over the total number.” And later he said, “Probability is the fraction of the affirmative cases over the total of affirmative and negative.” (Audio Lecture of Clark-Hoover Debate)
2. Probability is not used in Clark’s philosophy.
As Clark’s epistemology contended for the knowledge of truth itself, he had no positive use for probability. He notes exactly this in unpublished comments on a paper of Greg Bahnsen’s: “Probability plays no part in my views. Probability is a fraction of favorable cases over total cases + is inapplicable to this matter. Can he quote any place where I have grounded faith on high probability?” (Unpublished notes of Gordon H. Clark on paper of Greg Bahnsen, p. 15.)
3. Clark held that many philosophers are unclear on their definition of probability.
“It is impossible by historical methods to prove beyond all doubt that Jesus was crucified. Even if the crucifixion be probable, though what probability means is not easily … these people who talk about probability apparently have no notion of what probability means. You all, of course … did I use this example before? … you all, of course, know how to shoot craps. And you know what the probability of throwing twelve is. Or the probability of throwing seven. And you know what probability is, but if you talk about the probability of some historical event, you just have no … even a vague idea of what probability is. What’s the numerator of it? What’s the denominator of it? And people refuse to face these problems. They prefer to be vague and meaningless.” (Audio Lecture, Irrationalism.)
4. Clark held that “probable truth” depends on truth itself. (and therefore a theory of probable truth that denies actual truth in fact denies itself)
“Augustine zeroes in: A proposition can be probable and known to be probable, only if it resembles or approximates the truth. A person who does not know what is true cannot know what approximates it. A theory of probability must itself be based on the truth.” (Three Types of Religious Philosophy, p. 31.)
Probable truth ultimately is not good enough. We need actual or “absolute truth,” a phrase I hesitate to use as it provides no more content than “truth.” Fortunately God reveals truth to us in the Scriptures. And the Word of God is not “probably true,” it is true indeed.